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The GeoEd Fossil Rubbing Block
casts taken from real fossil specimens

Fossil Rubbings leaflet

  Practical hints for rubbing:
  • paper - cheapest copy paper gives good results as does wallpaper lining paper
  • pencils / crayons - hardness HB to 2B pencils are recommended or coloured, wax crayons.
  Hold the paper firmly, or stick it down, rub lightly over the whole fossil area to establish the outline and major features, followed by more thorough rubbing to fill in the details.

AMMONITE - Psiloceras johnstoni

Age: c.190 million years

Ammonites are now extinct, their nearest modern relatives being nautilus, squid and octopus. They lived in the sea and were members of the cephalopod molluscs.

From: Doniford Bay, Somerset

Stratigraphy: Lower Jurassic, Lower Lias, Planorbis zone

DINOSAUR FOOTPRINT - Megalosaur-type

Age: c.150 million years

Small footprint from a carnivorous dinosaur.
If you measure the length of the foot and then multiply that figure by four, you will know the hip height of the animal.

From: Thornborough Mill, near Buckingham

Stratigraphy: Upper Jurassic

DRAGONFLY - Stenophlebia aequalis

Age: c.140 million years

One of the many flying insects in the Jurassic skies

From: Solnhofen Limestone, Bavaria, Germany

Stratigraphy: Upper Jurassic, Portlandian

PTERODACTYL - Pterodactylus elegans

Age: c.150 million years

This complete skeleton shows all the individual bones including the skull with teeth. It is one of the Pterosaurs (flying reptiles).

From: Solnhofen Limestone, Bavaria, Germany

Stratigraphy: Upper Jurassic

PTERODACTYL - Pterodactylus kochi

Age: c.145 million years

This creature is in an upright ‘skiing man’ position. It has excellent bone preservation. The long ‘hand’ digit supporting the wing membrane is dramatically seen in this specimen. It is one of the Pterosaurs (flying reptiles).

From: Solnhofen Limestone, Bavaria, Germany

Stratigraphy: Upper Jurassic

SEA LILY - Hapalocrinus elegans

Age: c.145 million years

Sea lilies (crinoids) are related to sea urchins and starfish. They lived fixed to the sea bed by flexible ‘stems’ in shallow water. They are members of the Echinoderm family.

From: Hunsrück Shale, Bundenbach, Germany

Stratigraphy: Lower Devonian

SPADE FISH - Archaephippus asper

Age: c.50 million years

Extinct member of the Spadefishes (Ephippidae), a family of coastal fish living in warm seas. You can see eggs in the body cavity of this female specimen.

From: Monte Bolca, Verona, Italy

Stratigraphy: Eocene, Palaeogene

STARFISH - Pentasteria cotteswoldiae

Age: c.160 million years old

Starfish are related to sea urchins and sea lilies (crinoids) and are members of the Echinoderms.

From: Eyford, Gloucestershire

Stratigraphy: Middle Jurassic, Bathonian, Great Oolite Group, Stonefield Slate

TRACE FOSSIL - Nereites cambrensis

Age: c.430 million years

This feeding trail in marine sediment was probably made by a gastropod (sea snail).

From: Lampeter, Dyfed, Wales

Stratigraphy: Silurian, Llandovery Series

TRILOBITE - Ogygiocarella angustissima

Age: c.450 million years

Trilobites are now extinct. Their closest modern relative is the king crab. They lived on or near the sea bed in warm water and could roll up, like a modern wood louse. It had jointed legs, antennae and, with insects and spiders, was an arthropod. Can you see its prominent eyes?

From: Builth Wells area, Powys, Wales

Stratigraphy: Upper Ordovician, Caradoc Series